Theoretical, anthropological and archaeological concepts: definitions, links,
researchers, authors and bibliography
by Lolita Nikolova
© 2009-2012 International Institute of Anthropology, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
© 2009-2012 Lolita Nikolova, PhD
Created: 2-8-09; Last updated - 02-17-12.

Coming events:
The value of creative analogies in the Neolithic. 28 June 2010. School of History and Archaeology Cardiff University (.

External links:

Anthropological concepts

Anthropology of slavery

Anthropology: Terms and Concepts at

Archaeological concepts

Art is a creative human expression that connects people's culture and nature (L.N., July 22nd, 200
9) (power point presentation) (.pdf)

Free Anthropology courses from Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Rollans, Maureen (1990). A handbook for teaching archaeology in Saskatchewan schools

Teacher's websites

Outline of archaeology at Wikipedia

Intrigue of the Past

Banning, E.B. (Ed.) (2005).
The Archaeologist's Laboratory: The Analysis of Archaeological Data. Series: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology. Springer.
1st ed. 2000. Corr. 2nd printing, 2005, 332 p., Spiral binding. ISBN: 978-0-306-46369-3
Burke, Heather and Smith, Claire (Eds.) (2006). Archaeology to Delight and Instruct. Active Learning in the University Classroom. Left Coast Press.
288 pp.
Dunnell, Robert (1999) The concept of waste in evolutionary archaeology (online)
Howarth, David (2003). Archaeology, Genealogy and Hegemony: a Reply to Mulligan. Political Studies 51, 2, 436-440.
Graeber, David (2001). Toward an anthropological theory of value. The false coin of our own dreams. New York: Palgrave.
Rapport, Nigel and Overing, Joanna (2000). Social and Cultural Anthropology: The Key Concepts. Routledge.
At Questia:
Sullivan, Alan P. III (2008). Archaeological Concepts for the Study of the Cultural Past (2008). Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry
(James M. Skibo, series editor) (Contributions by Michael Deal, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Harold L Dibble, University of Pennsylvania; James G. Enloe, University of Iowa
Paul Goldberg, Boston University; David Killick, University of Arizona; Kenneth L. Kvamme, University of Arkansas; Julie K. Stein, University of Washington)

From the anthropology dictionary of Lolita Nikolova

Active listening
Active Listening: A Communication Tool (external link)

Abductive reasoning
Abductive reasoning: Logic, visual thinking, and coherence, by Paul Thagard and Cameron Shelley (1997)

Aleksandrov, Stefan.
Chair of Thracian Section of Archaeology, National Archaeological Institute and Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of sciences.
One of the architects of the
Dubene-Balinov affair. Author of an academic fraud ascribing a trench of treasure hunters to an archaeologist and goal to damage the
reputation and prevent scientific excavations. Recently
an article was published on Internet that shows absence of scientific methodology and enough academic
knowledge for what he has been writing. Most curiously he occurs as
a grantee of  the Shelby White-Leon Levy Program for Archaeological publications. What about
the honest and academic archaeologists?  Waiting for the whole package of competitive proposals who see why a grant was given to an author who is not the primary
excavator (Lolita Nikolova, 11-15-09).

Anthropology (L.N. 3-29-09)
"science of the natural history of man," 1593, coined from Gk. anthropo- (see anthropo-) + -logia "study of." (

It is impossible to have a steady definition about what is anthropology, since we have been living in a changing world and anthropology is one of the most sensitive
disciplines toward these changes. Anthropology as a science is the way to reflect on the changes and to participate in the changes by trying to direct them toward
humanism through deep knowledge on the human culture and the human visible and invisible behavior.

One of the most important roles of Anthropology of the 21st century is humanization of the discipline of anthropology since for many reasons authors and even
academic programs, in fact have been trying to take off the culture from studying the humankind which is, in fact not anthropology, since there are specific branches
of natural sciences for these goals while anthropology is a humanitarian science.

As a working definition as can propose: Anthropology is a humanitarian discipline which goal is providing a scientific knowledge about origin, evolution and
peculiarities of the human lives related to cultural production and reproduction, and their visible and invisible intentions, behavior and practices. There are four
traditional branches of anthropology: archaeology, physical anthropology, linguistic anthropology and cultural anthropology. There is also applied anthropology as
independent or related to the four branches discipline, the role of which is to employ the theoretical knowledge into social practices.

All four branches, in fact, inter-cross and interact not only between each other, but also with many other natural and humanitarian disciplines, so we have
anthropology of everydayness, psychological anthropology, social anthropology, anthropology of art, semiotics of culture, etc. The discipline of archaeology creates
problems since it includes empirical archaeology as a very essential part of this discipline. For this reason, there are authors who believe archaeology is an independent
science. As a matter of fact, anthropology is just a metahumanitarian discipline pointing to the fact that it studies the cultural and not the natural history of humans,
although the term relates to the natural history of man  ( Even so, this is a term from 1583 when the
humanitarian and natural sciences were not very well distinguished and subdivided. In other words, while archaeology and cultural anthropology do not have twins in
sciences, physical anthropology and linguistic anthropology do have twins - physical biology and linguistics.

Today while some academic programs in the USA are anchored to the traditional division (for instance, Michigan Department of Anthropology at the University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor), other prefer innovative and obviously more perspective approaches - for instance, University of California in Davis and State University of San
Francisco (see American anthropology in the 21st century, internal link at

Culture is one of the most difficult scientific subjects. Part of the problems is the fact that personality of the authors is embodied in the research topic, in other words,
the researchers-authors or the reproducers-authors are a part of culture as a process that has been studying. The so-called crisis in American anthropology which has
been written about since 1970s in many cases is a result of the fact that the educational system of anthropologists is a sort of cultural filter to decide who will research
anthropology, so the crisis is in the cultural filter and not in the discipline. The development of independent study and out-of university scientific and public centers
and stimulating the diversity of the academic branches without doubt will help in development of anthropology responding in the best way to the needs of the people all
over the world in the 21st century.

Cp: Anthropology in Columbia encyclopedia (2008, 6th edition) at
Comment (LN): There are many problems with the definition of anthropology in Columbia encyclopedia.
1. It is based on the normative view of culture (see while today we look at culture as a live open
system with conscious and unconscious cultural awareness and people's visible and invisible behavior as a process and results. The peculiarities of culture make it the
most difficult scientific subject of research.
2. It does not reveal the progress that American anthropology did in past towards development of the cultural subject of Anthropology as humanitarian discipline,
although it is stressed that in Europe Anthropology usually includes physical anthropology. The development of the fundamental discipline about people as research
science and applied science are an invertible fundamental contribution in the world human heritage. Although some American anthropologists have been trying to turn
anthropology toward its originaland its popular European meaning, the deep knowledge on culture and the invertible contributions of anthropology as humanitarian
science makes such tendencies just an attempt in deeper study of humans than a real turn to a sort of a natural-humanitarian discipline.
3. There is an attempt to break the four-field division of anthropology into two - physical and cultural anthropology. This attempt clearly shows the
misconceptualization of anthropology as natural and humanitarian and not only humanitarian discipline by making believe that physical anthropology as a field of
anthropology does not include culture. It is stated: "Physical anthropology focuses basically on the problems of human evolution, including human paleontology and
the study of race and of body build or constitution (somatology)". As a matter of fact, physical anthropology as a field of anthropology researches or should research
the cultural factors in the origin and evolution of humankind, while as a field of biology would study the natural scientific aspects.
4. The attempt of subdivision of cultural anthropology is also misleading. There are two independent fields - archaeology and cultural anthropology. Archaeology is not
only cultural anthropology (cp. Sullivan 2008, Archaeological concepts ...) since it is a complex discipline that includes empirical archaeology, interpreting archaeology
and theoretical archaeology. At all three levels archaeology crosses with a variety of disciplines including cultural anthropology (especially in the field of interpreting
archaeology). Ethnography relates to ethnology in the same way in which empirical archaeology relates to interpreting archaeology. Cultural anthropology does include
ethnography and ethnology but does not limit to them since ethnos is just one of the classifying parameters in study of the culture of traditional societies, as well as
today very actual is also the study of the national cultures that would be following the tradition nationology. Linguistic anthropology is also an independent branch
since the empirical base is languages which main scientific discipline is philology. As a field of anthropology linguistic anthropology studies how culture influences
languages and vice versa.
5. There are many other crossings new disciplines like psychological anthropology, anthropology of everydayness, contemporary past etc., which can be accepted as
subfields of cultural anthropology.

(9-30-09). We need to make difference between anthropology as a humanitarian discipline and university discipline. Some Departments of Anthropology could be
bastions of corruptions, multipersonalies and even dangerous for society. The Anthropology Professors are usually very well paid, but not all have the ability to
development according to the requirement of time. Among the Anthropology Professors are the most wonderful personalities in the world. But some of them, being  
uncompetitive in the academic society may experience terrifying behaviour to keep their status. It is not the profession , but the character makes the personality.
Humanistic character would create a humanistic personality. Non-humanistic character usually create a dangerous multipersonality.

Anthropoid primates
African Origin Of Anthropoid Primates Called Into Question With New Fossil Discovery (ScienceDaily, September 17, 2009).
Well-preserved craniodental fossil remains from two primate species have been discovered during excavations at an Algerian site. They reveal that the small primate
Algeripithecus, which is 50 million years old and until now was considered as the most ancient African anthropoid, in fact belonged to another group, that of the
crown strepsirhines.
This research was carried out by a team of French researchers from the Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution (Université de Montpellier/CNRS), working with Algerian
paleontologists from the universities of Tlemcen, Oran and Jijel. The resulting publication, published online on the website of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B
(Biological Sciences), reopens the debate on the African origin of anthropoids, the group to which humans and apes belong.
In 1992, fossilized remains of the small primate Algeripithecus were discovered in the Algerian Sahara. Fifty million years old, weighing just 75 g and known to
paleontologists thanks to the remains of two molars, this primate was considered to be the most ancient anthropoid of the African continent. The discovery of
Algeripithecus was thus a major contribution to the hypothesis under which Africa was the cradle of anthropoid primates, a group to which humans and apes all
belong. The existence of another primate, the Azibius, has been known for longer. This is one of the most ancient African representatives of the crown strepsirhines,
another primate group that today is represented by the lemurs of Madagascar, the galagos of Central Africa and the loris of Southern Asia.
At the Glib Zegdou site in north-eastern Algeria, a French team from the Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution in Montpellier (Université de Montpellier/CNRS), working
in collaboration with Algerian scientists, recently exhumed cranial and dental fragments from both Algeripithecus and Azibius. They included some nearly complete
mandibles. These remains displayed a certain number of traits typical of the crown strepsirhines, notably an adaptation to nocturnal activity and the putative presence
of a "toothcomb" in the lower toothrow. The paleontologists concluded that Algeripithecus, like its close relative Azibius, did not in fact belong to the family of
anthropoid primates but was very probably one of the most ancient representatives in Africa of the crown strepsirhines.
In Egypt, the presence of more than a dozen fossilized anthropoid primates dating from 30 to 38 million years ago had long been known. This recent Franco-Algerian
discovery thus advances the first true appearance of anthropoid primates on the African continent by more than 15 million years. With its major consequences on the
evolutionary history of African anthropoid primates, this observation further strengthens the alternative hypothesis of an Asiatic origin for anthropoids. Furthermore,
this paleontologic research reveals a hitherto unsuspected diversity and great antiquity of the first crown strepsirhines in Africa.

Anthropology of hidden misdeed

Applied science in archaeology.
Unfortunately, there are still not well distinguished criteria between science and applied science in archaeology. Some authors have been publishing in fact writings that
have a character of applied science but obviously with characteristics of scientific contributions using even questionable from scientific point of view theory and
methodology. One of the most recent instances is the book of
Bisserka Gaydarska based on her PhD thesis. In past problematic was the dissertation of Petya
Georgieva which was based on fact on illustration with a Bulgarian material of scientific theses invented by Romanian archaeologists and applied to the Bulgarian
archaeology first by Henrietta Todorova. The last author traditionally has adapted Romanian scientific contributions to the Bulgarian material, often even without
proper citation (see for instance,
Todorova (ed.) 2002. Durankulak). In this case it has been using the term "for the first time in Bulgarian historiography" but in fact in
prehistory the prehistoric cultures developed in areas which differ form the modern and post-modern political borders.
Beyond applying already formulated scientific theses to certain archaeological material, there is also cases when well formulated in the theoretical anthropological
science theses have been applying to certain archaeological region. From these perspectives, there are also doubts of real scientific contributions. Typical are some
works of John Chapman on Balkan Prehistory, who later even has not cited the sources of his theoretical imports.
Applied science in archaeology may have no the character of scientific contributions, may help to stabilization and development of chronological schemes and
enriching of the regional knowledge. The increased requirements toward humanitarian science and call for academization in global context make actual clearly to
distinguish the scientific from applied scientific contributions (L.N.), respectively between scientists and applied science writers.

Archaeological theories
Wikipedia (with references cited there)
Bentley, R. Alexander et al. (2008). Archaeological theories. Lanham etc.: AltaMira.

Archaeology and anthropology of enculturation (L.N.)
A field of research, the aim of which is by deductive, inductive and abduction-based methods of analysis of the archaeological records to reveal the main principals of
integrations of the individuals and multi-scale social groups with the inherited and new culture values and practiced principals, and how culture determines and
changes the individual and group visible and invisible behavior including the social mind. Archaeology of enculturation relies on the archaeological evidence as primary
record base, but it also requires diachronic and synchronic cross-cultural anthropological studies, simulation models, experimental techniques and bridging with all
scientific fields that have been crossed in the fundamental concept of enculturation to help to achieve a meaningful multi-dimension approach to the past of human
As a pioneer of the 21st century research of the enculturation as a process of primary importance for the evolution of the human beings can be recognized Merlin
Wilfred Donald, a Canadian psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. This significance points to enculturation as the skeleton of the evolutionary and functional
theoretical, archaeological and cultural anthropology.
The problems of archaeology and anthropology of enculturation have become essential in series of the most recent scholar-works of general and regional
archaeoanthropology including Prehistory of Eurasia, Classical Antiquity in Greece, theory of Neolithization, etc.

Additional notes:
Enculturation and Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment (see for these stages
1. Level 1, stage 1 - "preconventional" because "children do not yet speak as members of society" (
The children see "morality as something external to themselves, as that which the big people say they must do" (
2. Innate language ability (Noam Chomsky)
"All children in all cultures learn their language at the same time, i.e., between the ages of eighteen months and four years." (
Hesselgrave online )
Comment (L.N.): This statement indicates the enculturation is a graduate process, and its success depends on the individual and its enculturation context as an active system. Factor: age.

Enculturation and socialization
Williams (1972: 42) accepted that the two major recognized theoretical models of learning used in the socialization studies (Thorndike-Hull behaviorism and Freudian personal character processes)
contrasted with the process of enculturation among the Papago. (About Papago see  


Donald, Merlin. (1998). Hominid Enculturation and Cognitive Evolution, in Renfrew, Collin and Scarre, Chris (Eds.), Cognition and material culture: the Archaeology
of symbolic storage, 2-16. Cambridge, U.K.: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Hesselgrave, David. (online). Enculturation and Acculturation.
Nikolova, Lolita. (online). Archaeology and Anthropology of Enculturation. Balkan Prehistory in Eurasian Context. Bibliography.
Nikolova, Lolita. (2005). Anthropology of Everydayness (in Bulgarian) (Manuscript)
Williams, Thomas Rhys (1972). Introduction to socialization. Human culture transmitted. Saint Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company.
Wikipedia, Enculturation

Archaeology of rank
e.g. The Archaeology of Rank. Series: New Studies in Archaeology, by Paul K. Wason, Bates College, Maine (1994).

Art as a creative expression
Art is a creation expression that connects people's culture and nature (L.N., July 22, 2009)

Assimilative integration
in psychotherapy: "an approach in which the therapist has a commitment to one theoretical approach but also is willing to use techniques from other therapeutic
approaches" (
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders)

Attitude development
Voting: "
Social psychology has identified two key variables for the understanding of attitude development: the need to evaluate and the need for cognition. Most importantly, the interaction
between these two personality traits tends to predict patterns of attitude change (Petty, 2003)." (

Axillary hair (cutaneous appendages)
see Hairless armpits

Bateson, Gregory
Double binded, schismogenesis
1982, Gregory Bateson: Old Men Ought to be Explorers by Stephen Nachmanovitch, CoEvolution Quarterly, Fall 1982.

Benedict, Ruth.
Cultural psychology.
Links: (Pattern of culture);;

Cladistic phylogenetic analysis
Basics of cladistic analysis by Diana Limpscomb
According to the present evidence, based on the cladistic phylogenetic analysis, the common ancestor for the hominid species lived at least 30 million years ago,
during the Oligocene epoch (
Jerison 2006).

Confirmation theory

Creative explosion, producing of
Term used by Pfeiffer for Neanderthals as a phase of evolution (see

Creative cognition
Creative cognition is a new area of research which aims to investigate both the cognitive processes that lead to the emergence of novel cognitive structures and the role of existing cognitive structures
in this emergence (Finke et al., 1992; Smith et al., 1995; Ward et al., 1997).
Moreno, Rosa E.V. (2007)

Critical Anthropology
Critical analysis of “cultures, peoples and places” paradigm that has shaped this discipline over much of the twentieth century.
after Jakob Rigi). If it is true, then the paradigm of 21st century anthropology as a humanistic discipline in the context of humanization and rebirth of academism would focus on how anthropology
influences the other disciplines and how the other disciplines integrate with anthropology by creating a megadiscipline of humanity. Also, it is not the people's results, but peoples attempts, ideals
and dreams become actuals, since obviously the social results never reflect the enormous humanistic attempts and the positive social energy in many cases have been burnt in even non-humanistic
but successful reflection, opposition or complimentary activity. In other words, anthropology of 21st century is anthropology of values and how they succeed or fail in the human society. It also
about people not as social actors, but personalities with multi-identity that have been changing during the lifelong process of enculturation and socialization.  

Cultural institution for social grouping based on common beliefs (Lolita Nikolova, July 2009).

Cultural anthropology
"meaning-centered"  - as applied to medicine and psychiatry (see Fábrega 1999)

Cultural context
and psychopathology
"The cultural context of any deviation of thinking, feeling, or behaving determines whether it is pathological" (
Flynn about Fábregas' concept).

Cultural globalization
(L.N.) The development of universal cultural values of humanity to be embodied in the global network of local and individual cultures by:
(1) stimulating to use of the best of the cultural heritage (traditions),
(2) developing of multicultural environments,
(3) encouraging development of the long-life creativity of the people of all ages.
The future of the humankind depends completely on the direction of the cultural globalization. The cultural globalization should be a task of all people in the world within their long-life process of
Compare: Encyclopedia Britannica -
Cultural globalization by James L. Watson

Culture: the set of learned beliefs, values, styles, and behaviors generally shared by members of a society or group. (Source: Intrigue of the Past at
Comment: See the scheme of culture at

Donald, Merlin
Home page
The Donald's central thesis is that "human beings have evolved a completely novel cognitive strategy: brain-culture symbiosis" (from his homepage at
Donald (1998): There is a close relationship between cognitive skill, especially what might be called latent individual capacity, and the process of enculturation. Individuals do not leap into
modernity on their own, but rather must make the transition through a process of intense cultural em-bedding. That embedding process, especially if it occurs in early childhood and is sufficiently
all-encompassing, might lead to the successful enculturation of the individual into a society very different from the one into which that person was born. But this process involves much more than
'programming' an individual brain with arbitrary cultural content.
(more in
Hominid Enculturation and Cognitive Evolution, in Renfrew, Collin and Scarre, Chris (Eds.) (1998), Cognition and material culture: the Archaeology of symbolic storage, 2-16. Cambridge,
U.K.: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.    

Double bind
Bateson, Gregory (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology.  University Of Chicago Press.  

Dysfunctional mental working model of interpersonal relations
When what appears to be, or is, "a benign wish, intention, or anticipated act is expected to evoke a reaction in others that will cause a person distress or harm" (Binder 2004: 36)

Richard Eves (1997) The Magical Body
p. 40-41 By embodiment I mean the processes by which the other is assimilated, subsumed or overcome in acts of internalisation. Embodiments or incorporation is the process of internalising that
which is external, making it consubstantial with the body.
Case studies: embodiment through consumption and ingestion of things external to the body (comestibles such as food but also knowledge and objects) that point to the significance of body in the
politics of identity.

Encephalisation quotient
Encephalisation quotient is an empirical measure of the relative intelligence of a certain species. More at

See archaeology and anthropology of enculturation

Handbook of culture, therapy and pathology (2004): Beginning of humankind: As a consequence of the process of enculturation, conceived in this context as a progressive incorporation of a
capacity for language, cognition, and culture, organisms which we cab now begin to refer to as individuals and persons came to learn about and conceptualize natural history and ecology ...

Endotropy and Exotropy
All brains of superior animals exhibit two kinds of functioning: one exotropic, oriented to exterior operations, one endotropic, operating in closed circuits, as in the reverie (daydream) of a digesting
(A fundamental anthropogeny, by Henri Van Lier)

When a group of people construct their identities by recognizing differences from others, they participate in an
exotropic activity
Reference: Prehistoric Figurines By Douglass Whitfield Bailey (2005), p. 141

... within a group, the exotropic self-definition creates a standardized notion of self in which individual differences are minimized in order to sustain overarching categories (Mirzoeff 1999: 170)

Entite cordiale
Used by David Graeber (2001:2) to explain Talcott Parson's structuring of the different but complimentary approach of sociology, anthropology and psychology to the study of human behaviour:
psychologists - the structure of the individual personality, sociologists - the social relations, and anthropologists - deal with the way both were mediated by culture.

Exchange and trade
Circulation of goods through exchange (rather than trade) is carried out through primary social mechanism rather than economic ones (see Peter Wells 2008: 362)

Facet theory [10-12-09]

Fábrega, Horacio, Jr.

General contructivist theory of moral
Lawrence Kohlberg (about him at
Kohlberg integrates three fields  - moral philosophy, symbolic interactionism and cognitive-developmental psychology into his theory (Mosher et al., p. 105)

Global society
See LTH society.

Hairless armpits
Man with hairless armpits feels upset
About the Burgess' interpretation see  
Why it is female privilege  - see
Axillary hair creates a strong female reaction

Hearing voices in head
The contemporary development of neurobiology, psychology and anthropology allow to resolve complex problems about the nature of the human behavior.  
One of the most ancient beliefs is in supernatural spirits. In the contemporary world they still continue to take a big place in the understanding of the world. The science usually explains for
instance hearing voices as a result of decease and hallucinations while there are many cases that show hearing voices may do not relate to schizophrenia. The voices can be real voices of people in
distance that are able to invade the brain especially after trauma.   
Learning  more about hearing voices can help to explain some aspects of the supernatural beliefs of spirits but also how to prevent the people from aggressive behaviors of others who have been
using visible and invisible means in their controversial social behavior. Usually the aggressive invisible behavior interconnect with visible traces like non-ethical arrogant behavior, non-
professioanalism, attempting power, non-grounded obtained prestige through power and connections, etc. The invisible aggressive behavior is dangerous, since it can cause even the death of people
as a result of psychotronic attacks.

Hidden misdeed
see Anthropology of hidden misdeed

Household (L.N.)
Elementary enculturation constructor (in the sense of the 21st century anthropology). See "Household undressed".
In the 20th century the household  could be defined as an elementary social unit, but the recent development of enculturation as a fundamental concept for understanding of the human society
refocuses the interest in the household towards its primary role in the enculturation process even in the contemporary society.

According to Mikhail Epstein, humanology is a discipline, studying the transformation of humans and all human phenomena in the advanced technological society, in relation to  the  alternative  
forms of life and reason. More at

Human values
Morris, Charles (1956). Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
See also value.

Feeling of belonging and of commonality among a group of people, and of difference from members of other groups (Peter Wells 2008: 357). Signs of identity can be expressed by different ways of
manipulating material culture (Ibid., p. 362).
See also endotropy and exotropy
Identity is also recognizing who you are in the world and s important quality developed in the so-called independent stage of the life span (see
Family life cycle)

Ideosyncratic symbols in Prehistory (L.N.)
Most of the prehistoric symbols are polysemantic. One of the popular ideosyncratic symbol on Prehistory is of sun. There are also symbols of tree of life.
For swastika see:

Interpretive archaeology
See Interpretive archaeology: a reader (2000), by Julian Thomas (

Anthropology of intrigue
What? Me a spy? Intrigue and Reflexivity in Zanzibar (
external link)

Kinship terms

Landes, Ruth
Pioneer in anthropology of race and gender
Ruth Landes: A life in Anthropology, by Sally Cole (2003)

LTH society
Presumably the global society which is based on lawness, transparency and honestness. See social stratification.

Maintaining social relationships
Expressed for instance by commonality of the material culture of the ordinary villagers and elite (Peter Wells 2008: 363)

Manipulation of the material culture
Example: using accoutrements (weapons, fibulae belts etc.) as signs of identity (to distinguish from neighbours) (Peter Wells 2008: 362)

Variety of typologies

See MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality weekly report.

Narrative archaeology

Classification of diseases

Open anthropology

Neuro term. 1. A preconfigured pathway or network of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem, or spinal cord utilized in nonverbal communication. 2. A pre-
established neural program, of great age, for sending (or receiving) nonverbal signs. 3. An ancient, neural "platform" for bodily expression, configured millions
of years before the advent of cortical circuits for speech.
More at
"The human emotion of love is believed to have evolved from paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulated gyrus) designed for
the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring."
Read more:

Personalistic society (9-21-09)
My understanding is that the society of the 21st century has been developing toward personalistic society. It is still early to define all characteristics of this
society, but the definition would reflect the increasing role of the open and academic educations, the easy access to a variety of information and the gradual
intensification of the role of each individual in the decision making of the multilevel groups.
One of the anthropological aspects of the personalistic society are the human rights. Jacques Maritain proposes four essential principles for the realization of
human rights in a society of societies: 1) freedom 2) economic efficiency, 3) social justice, and 4) preservation of the human species and its natural habitat (see
Jacques Maritain and human rights)

Photo-elicitation method

Pirates and anthropology of place
Teacher's research project of Lolita Nikolova

Prehistory and Prehistories (L.N.)
The contemporary development of the theory of archaeology makes possible to distinguish two terms: Prehistory as a theoretical megaconcept and Prehistories used for regional prehistoric
analyses. For instance, Eurasian Prehistory would define models on prehistoric developments, while Eurasian Prehistories would include regional research in depth. For the first time this distinction
was proposed in the web article at (created 3-22-09).
Purpose of science is to provide truthful view on the world and to direct the human society.

Origin (external link)
Broad understanding: "syndromes or ensembles of behavior featured by such things as prominent displays of or predispositions toward hostility, suspiciousness, antisociality, pride and vanity,
social arrogance, grandiosity, social and sexual exploitation, and violence, as well as socially aversive and divisive behavior" (
Handbook). ... "The movement toward medicalization was reflected in
the creation of the "science" of psychopathology, an enterprise aimed at rigorously describing and classifying manifestations of mental illness (.i.e., thinking, emotion, and will) were altered by the
disease of the brain that explained mental illness (
Handbook) [biomedical disease-oriented way of thinking]
universalistic approach to psychopathology (DSM IV-R) the disorders constitute "natural objects" that "are common across cultural groups and historical epochs) (

Public archaeology
L.N.: public archaeology as an effective applied science

Carol McDavid (e-mail, September 26, 2009):
The definition of "public archaeology" ... came as a result of many long conversations with colleagues, including John Carman at the University of Birmingham, whom
you may know because he usually goes to EAA, TAG, etc.
Any endeavor in which archaeologists interact with the public, and any research (practical or theoretical) that examines or analyses the public dimensions
of doing archaeology.

Repute (v/s status)
etymology (external link)
In our theory of society the repute is the corresponding to status term in the social visible space.

Scalar stress
William A. Parkinson (2006) proposes scaler stress as a reason for changes in social organization in the period from Tisza-Herpály-Csőszhalom Complex to Tiszapolgár) cultures in the Great
Hungarian Plain. (see

Science (L.N., 3-29-09)
Origin: 1300–50; ME < MF < L scientia knowledge, equiv. to scient- (s. of sciēns), prp. of scīre to know + -ia (from
Many scholars believe that integrating anthropology with natural science will make their writings stronger and real science. But the facts do not make the science.
These are the arguments. Any thought in which we have truthful argument is an expression of science. Then, academic/scientific thinking is thinking in which we use
truthful arguments.
Cp.: science definition ( Comments (L.N.): 1. Science cannot be a system of acquire knowledge since
not every knowledge is science. 2.
2. Purpose of science is not to produce useful models of reality, since many scientific research models of reality are not useful and many scientific research works do
not have a character of models.  


Social brain

Richard Eves (1997) The Magical body
p. 43 Socialization is seen as a process of incorporation which is external to a person is acquired as habituated practice through the process of mimesis.

Social obligations
Social obligations tied centers and villages in European Later Prehistory (Peter Wells 2008: 362)

Social stratification (L.N. 9-28-09)
This term is a way the specialists and non-specialists have been trying to explain the differences between people and social groups. Social stratification or social layering is a process that has been
evolving since the beginning of the human society. The biological gender, age, abilities and social practices differences have gradually culminated in wealth differences and by the reproduction of the
wealth the layering became an instrument of development of economic, social and political inequality. One of the extremes is the emergence of the social category of slavery. The other extreme is for
instance, the hereditary kingship institution.
Today in the most parts of the world the social stratification has been developing within the political system of democracy. In this systems the equality is the right of the equal access to the
institutions and resources based on lawness, transparency and honestness. The differences are based on the right of heritage, different human abilities and diverse social practices. If there is no
lawness, we usually do not have transparency and honestness. And where there is no transparency and honestness, we may expect a visible or invisible violation of the lawness.
Lawness, transparency and honestness stimulate such development of human complexity that will give opportunity everybody who is committed to LTH principals to succeed within the limits of
his/her abilities, heritage and everyday social practices. LTH does not mean equality, since people are people thanks to their culture and culture means differences. When there are differences, there
are inequality.
On the whole, the social stratification is an artificial concept. In the information society we do have a huge access to much more sources for individual development and for creating of mobile
structure. Most regretfully, many individuals prefer commitment to corruption than to LTH and they have been suing visible and invisible means for corrupt the social soil of LTH society,
respectively of humanity and democracy.  

Sonar technology
Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technology that uses acoustical waves to sense the location of objects in the ocean. More ...

Spillover effect
In economy - the influence on the social environment without being directly involved in the process. In psychology - "people's emotions affect the emotions of those around them" (Wikipedia)

See Disagree with Wikipedia


As a psychoanalyst conducting therapy (Merriam Webster)

Graeber 2001.

Visual Rhetoric
Bailey 2005 (Prehistoric figurines).