Wealth in Prehistoric Eurasia
selected links, text, comments and updated by Lolita Nikolova
Internal links:
Malta 2008 EAA 14th Conference:
Structure and Function of Wealth in Prehistoric Eurasia

External links:
Southeast Europe: Sites and treasures 5th-1st millennium cal BCE
Comment: The gold graves from Varna inhumantion cemetery dates from later 5th
millennium cal BCE (on the linked map the treasure is dated from the fourth mill BC). Link
to Varna gold:
Comment: The idea the Varna cemetery promoted the beginning of wealth was argued by
Colin Renfrew in
Varna and Emergence of Wealth in Prehistoric Europe
Our understanding is that Varna gold cemetery is a culmination of the graduate
development of the concept of wealth in the Balkans.
One of the earliest human cultural products if accumulation of wealth were the ornaments.
Links to information about the shell beads from Üçağızlı Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil
(Lebanon) (43,000-41,000 cal BC):
Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant
(with references for early beads from Israel, Argentina and Southern Africa)
  Link to excavations at Üçağızlı Cave (Turkey) with photos of the found beads:
    Link to Kozarnika, Northeast Bulgaria
©2008 Lolita Nikolova, PhD
International Institute of Anthropology
Upper Paleolithic Üçağızlı
Cave (Turkey)
Artifical incision on bone from Kozarnika dated from Early Paleolithic (link to the discovery in
2004 that included the 8-cm long bone with less than 10 marks above and another animal bone
incised with 27 marks along its edge)